An analysis of the goals and failures of the first and second reconstructions

Abstract Purpose At some time during its life, every organization will face some form of disruptive crisis. Be it a natural disaster, a reputational crisis, problems within the supply chain, or an issue affecting its people, organizational crises happen more often than we think. This paper aims to set out three pillars for organizational resilience, identify the questions that leaders need to ask themselves about employee readiness, and offer ten practical ways in which leaders can help their teams to respond effectively in times of disruptive change. Findings When an organization is put under pressure, it is their people and how they come together that can make or break the organization.

An analysis of the goals and failures of the first and second reconstructions

Being awarded a fellowship to attend the seminar, which was jointly funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities, enabled me to take the time to read deeply in the literature of the profession, where I discovered that the failings I had been seeing in American archival institutions were not primarily a consequence of bad management, but of the fact that the best methods of the profession were inadequate to the task at hand.

SinceI have not pursued this research directly and the work has remained dormant. I have spoken about it publicly from time to time, but have not forced others or myself to deal with its conclusions. Increasingly I have felt that this is irresponsible of me, and am glad to be bringing it out for public scrutiny at this time.

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In the process, the first four chapters have been substantially rewritten, but the underlying structure of the argument, and its conclusions, have not been affected.

Although references throughout the text were updated to reflect recent literature, the modest amendments and refinements of archival methods and practices proposed during the past three years have not required me fundamentally to revise my premises.

The first four essays address the four fundamental activities involved in the management of the physical record: Of each of these activities I ask whether our present methods are adequate and if not, how they can be adjusted within the practical limitations which cultural repositories face.

Throughout, my audience is the professional, but I do not mean simply those who work in repositories called archives. I include here museum curators, librarians and others whose efforts are devoted to preserving cultural memory and making it available to future generations, and who frequently are also responsible for archival materials.

Chapter five explores an idea relevant to the changes in methodology proposed in the first four chapters. Intelligent artifices are presented as a tool for expanding intellectual control, and consequently, access and use. Chapter six returns to the themes in the introduction to consider the role of the archivist and the nature of the archival endeavor, and to propose new views of both based on the ideas in the intervening chapters.

CES Technical Notes

More important even than the generous financial support I received from the Mellon Foundation and NEH is the intellectual support of Francis Bluin and Bill Wallach of the Bentley Library, and of my colleagues in the Seminar - Chris Baer, Greg Bradsher, Judy Endelman, Avra Michelson and Peter Sigmond - who read and discussed drafts of these papers with me that summer and stimulated me by their own research.

In addition, I would like to thank Helen Samuels and Ed Bridges who read and critiqued drafts inand Richard Cox who read drafts in Finally, these essays have been greatly improved by the careful editing of Lynn Cox, Managing Editor of Archives and Museum Informatics Technical Report, without whose assistance they would not have been published.

Indeed, keeping and using the past is central to our concept of human cultures and civilization. In the oral culture of non-literate societies, in the myths and fables refined by centuries of retelling, we are delighted to discover a source of fundamental truths, of the themes which make us essentially human.

This record of apocryphal events, reflecting historical facts but not bound utterly by them, is a distillation of a once living testimony.

An analysis of the goals and failures of the first and second reconstructions

The thematic integrity and size of the oral record, made it possible for a single human mind to comprehend the whole, and to relate it to the next generation in appropriate contexts. The advent of literacy posed a new problem for human societies, for in freezing the memory of a culture in material formats, in creating a written or recorded memory which resists transformation, man provided himself with an objectified past which stands in opposition to the present in a way which the oral tradition, so bending and resilient, never did.

Because societies were enabled to extend themselves further across space and time through writing, and subsequently through the recording of sounds and images, than through the oral record, the "technology of preserved communication" has allowed for the development of a more variegated cultural repertoire 1.

In so doing, it has created a world so complex that no individual can possibly master it all. Recently, the record of human endeavor has grown so large that no individual can even master where to find it all. In such a world, special roles have been created to assure the interpretation, retention and transmission of culture and special institutions have been established to support these functions.

Archives, historical societies, libraries and museums are the institutions created by our society to play the role of selecting, conserving, and providing access to the record of our culture. To an extent far greater than the society admits, these professional keepers of cultural evidence are not simply custodians of our recorded past, but shapers of the cultural memory.

This is true in the first place because archives and museums are in no position to acquire a complete record of our culture though libraries might, in the aggregate, acquire a nearly complete set of the published record of our society.“Our new results show a significant change in the surface mass balance (from snowfall) during the twentieth century.

An analysis of the goals and failures of the first and second reconstructions

The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula, where the annual average snowfall during the first decade of the 21st century is 10% higher than . After being taken down twice by Blogger within a single week, we got the message: It’s Time To Go.

Gates of Vienna has moved to a new address. This is an introductory tutorial on Julia as it is today, aimed at people with experience in another language, and who want to get up to speed quickly as Julia heads towards its first stable version.

We believe in sharing our expertise and experience in resilience. Below is a list of papers, reports, book chapters, theses, and other articles we have published exploring a range of research areas to help build our knowledge base of resilience.

Habermas was born in Düsseldorf, Rhine Province, in He was born with a cleft palate and had corrective surgery twice during childhood. Habermas argues that his speech disability made him think differently about the importance of deep dependence and of communication.

Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.

Mead, George Herbert | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy