Cropped and rotated Gender and age profiles per city Case by case inspection of photos can reveal a lot of detail, but it is difficult to quantify the patterns observed. Do New Yorkers or Berliners look older? Here are the results: Smile distributions by gender and city We can also the determine the facial expressions of the selfies in a city — who smiles the most, and who has more reserved looks?
Overview[ edit ] In applying statistics to a problem, it is common practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all persons living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal".
Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population an operation called census. This may be organized by governmental statistical institutes. Descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the population data.
Numerical descriptors include mean and standard deviation for continuous data types like incomewhile frequency and percentage are more useful in terms of describing categorical data like race. When a census is not feasible, a chosen subset of the population called a sample is studied. Once a sample that is representative of the population is determined, data is collected for the sample members in an observational or experimental setting.
Again, descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the sample data. However, the drawing of the sample has been subject to an element of randomness, hence the established numerical descriptors from the sample are also due to uncertainty. To still draw meaningful conclusions about the entire population, inferential statistics is needed.
It uses patterns in the sample data to draw inferences about the population represented, accounting for randomness. These inferences may take the form of: Inference can extend to forecastingprediction and estimation of unobserved values either in or associated with the population being studied; it can include extrapolation and interpolation of time series or spatial dataand can also include data mining.
Sampling[ edit ] When full census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect sample data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Statistics itself also provides tools for prediction and forecasting through statistical models.
The idea of making inferences based on sampled data began around the mids in connection with estimating populations and developing precursors of life insurance.
Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can safely extend from the sample to the population as a whole. A major problem lies in determining the extent that the sample chosen is actually representative.
Statistics offers methods to estimate and correct for any bias within the sample and data collection procedures. There are also methods of experimental design for experiments that can lessen these issues at the outset of a study, strengthening its capability to discern truths about the population.
Sampling theory is part of the mathematical discipline of probability theory.
Probability is used in mathematical statistics to study the sampling distributions of sample statistics and, more generally, the properties of statistical procedures.
The use of any statistical method is valid when the system or population under consideration satisfies the assumptions of the method. The difference in point of view between classic probability theory and sampling theory is, roughly, that probability theory starts from the given parameters of a total population to deduce probabilities that pertain to samples.
Statistical inference, however, moves in the opposite direction— inductively inferring from samples to the parameters of a larger or total population. Experimental and observational studies[ edit ] A common goal for a statistical research project is to investigate causalityand in particular to draw a conclusion on the effect of changes in the values of predictors or independent variables on dependent variables.
There are two major types of causal statistical studies: In both types of studies, the effect of differences of an independent variable or variables on the behavior of the dependent variable are observed. The difference between the two types lies in how the study is actually conducted.
Each can be very effective. An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, and then taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements.
In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation.
Instead, data are gathered and correlations between predictors and response are investigated.Essay about Mixed Methodology in the Field of Educational Research - QUESTION 1 "With the development and perceived legitimacy of both qualitative and quantitative research in social and human sciences, mixed methods research, employing the combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches, has gained popularity.".
Data collection, analysis, reporting and dissemination are all salient aspects of good research products, which must be conducted under business research ethical standards recognized in journals and professional publications devoted to the issue of business research ethics.
Volume 6, No. 2, Art.
43 – May Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method. Barbara B. Kawulich. Abstract: Observation, particularly participant observation, has been used in a variety of disciplines as a tool for collecting data about people, processes, and cultures in qualitative nationwidesecretarial.com paper provides a look at various definitions of participant observation.
Free statistics project papers, essays, and research papers.
About Olin Business School. Washington University's Olin Business School is a place where students discover and develop their talents. Learn through challenging academics and real-world experiences. The spaced learning effect, a cognitive phenomenon strongly supported by psychological research, has broad applicability within education.
For example, students have been found to perform better on a test of knowledge about a text passage when a second reading of the passage is delayed rather than immediate (see figure).
Educational psychology research has confirmed the applicability to.