A Guide to Food-based Approaches A Manual for Policy-makers and Programme Planners Food-based approaches play an essential role in preventing micronutrient malnutrition since they increase the availability and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods. In the long term, such approaches are more likely to be sustainable. If overt micronutrient malnutrition is present, short-term supplementation programmes can be helpful but need to be gradually taken over by food-based activities, as the former are generally not sustainable.
For example, in andtwo of the largest health care systems in southeastern Michigan i. These closures result in additional strains on remaining hospitals, creating even greater stresses for an already fragile system. While hospital closings and mergers create many issues and concerns, both the declining number of beds and the declining number of admissions is related to a significant decline in the number of in-patient surgeries.
Bythe respective percentages of in-patient and out-patient surgeries were 42 percent and 58 percent. While the cost savings to insurers is real, although difficult to calculate, the impact on formal and informal after-care services and in home health care is equally difficult to estimate.
Now many more patients return home on the same day of their surgeries. For individuals with familial and social supports this reality may not be as challenging as for patients who live alone and have little if any family or social network on which to depend. It is calculated by the Institute for the Future that 40 percent of sickness is related to life style and health behavior choices.
Clearly education and early case finding are paramount. Prevention has proven effective for individuals or families who have made life style and health behavior changes. However, for many patients, changing to a managed care program, or switching between managed care programs, changes and limits the choices of providers to those on preferred panels.
In many plans, if a patient wants to see a provider with whom he or she is familiar, but who is not included as a provider in their "new" plan, an option may exist for obtaining "out of network" services, but it almost always comes with a significantly higher out-of pocket co-pay.
Some employers are covering fewer persons. Some are passing the increases on to employees and requiring higher levels of employee contribution. And some employers are just doing away with health care benefits all together. While reductions in the "value" of an existing plan adversely impact employees, the ability to contain insurance costs helps for more people to at least remain covered in some fashion—even if their coverage is only for very serious illnesses.
The number of people in the population without health care has increased. Currently it is estimated that 42 million people, or 16 percent of the population, is without any form of health care insurance. The Institute for the Future projected that the number of uninsured will reach 48 billion by While this statistic usually rises during times of recession and decreases in times of expansion, the number of uninsured has increased even during the expansion of the late s and early s.
The Institute for the Future also reported that the number of non-elderly persons covered by employment related health insurance dropped from In Michigan, for example, the Access to Health Care Coalition reported that between and the percent of residents without health insurance decreased from However, given the relationship between the economy and the availability of health insurance, this decrease appears temporary.
An increase is expected in the number of uninsured, especially in light of the economic downturn of While not all eligible children have been enrolled in these programs, a considerable number are not eligible based on family income exceeding a percentage of the Federal Poverty Level FPL.
Mirroring national trends, Michigan is struggling with rising unemployment, a budget deficit, and growing demands for health services and insurance coverage.
Often the underinsured and uninsured use the emergency room, the most expensive form of health care service, for any illness. Weiss and Lonnquist reported that uninsured emergency room care visits totaled 93 million in In approximately half of the cases, urgent care was not needed, nor did the individuals seeking care have a regular physician or other option for gaining access to health care services.
Their observations are summarized below: The first group represents 38 percent of the population.
Factors influencing decisions of value in health care: a review of the literature. factors influencing decisions which affect quality and finance in health care. It therefore addresses the A further exploratory synthesis of the wider relationship between economic and cost elements in health care. This drew on literature identified in. The relationship between social capital and health is disputed. Some writers have suggested that there is a direct relationship between inequalities in social capital and inequalities in health, whereas others (for example Kaplan et al., ) are less certain. Social determinants of health are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources throughout local communities, nations, and the world . Socioeconomic Gradient in Health This term refers to the stepwise fashion health outcomes improve as socioeconomic position improves.
It consists of empowered consumers with considerable discretionary income, who are well educated and use technology, including the Internet, to get information about their health.Social factors Economic climate and employment conditions Work is an important way for young people to achieve a number of important developmental tasks including financial and emotional independence.
Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that the strength of political, social, and economic institutions does impact human resources for health production and lays a foundation for studying how macro-level contextual factors influence physician and nurse workforce supply.
Economic and social drivers such as income, education and social connectedness have a direct bearing on health. , These socio-economic determinants strongly interact to influence health and, in general, an improvement in any of these can produce an improvement in both health behaviours and outcomes among individuals and/or groups.
- Health and Nutrition: The introduction of free primary health care in April has led to a four-fold increase in the number of rural people treated between and In , more than clinics were either built or upgraded, including significant numbers in poorer provinces.
Factors influencing decisions of value in health care: a review of the literature. factors influencing decisions which affect quality and finance in health care. It therefore addresses the A further exploratory synthesis of the wider relationship between economic and cost elements in health care.
This drew on literature identified in. Improving the health status of Indigenous peoples1 in Australia is a longstanding challenge for governments in Australia.
The gap in health status between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians remains unacceptably wide.2 It has been identified as a human rights concern by United Nations committees3; and acknowledged as such by Australian governments4.