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A friend posted a picture she took while at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania earlier this year. It shows the headstones of a Piute child named Boise and a Shawnee child named Fanny. Carlisle was the first off-reservation Indian boarding school.
For many Natives, it represents the destructive and often deadly nature of official US assimilation policies forced down the throats of Native youth and families from the late s to the mids.
Whenever possible, I use Native, Indigenous, or specific tribal names. Kids as young as five and six were bathed in kerosene and forced to cut their sacred hair upon arrival. Physical and sexual abuse was widespread. Trying not to die was as much a part of the curriculum as learning a new trade.
And it was considered totally legit in the name of mainstreaming. Carlisle — and the dozens of other schools modeled after it — ruled by the motto: And yet many refuse to lay blame at the feet of these institutions. They point to the Natives who got good jobs, or flourished athletically, like Jim Thorpe, and especially those who refused to return to their Native homelands in favor of the Western lifestyle.
More still know nothing of the atrocities experienced by boarding school survivors and dismiss studies that show intergenerational trauma affects Native students in classrooms today.
Educators need to remember context before passing judgment. Many historians say these schools were a way to save what many saw as a dying race. The reservation system was failing, Natives were living in extreme poverty, and conflicts continued to plague US military forces on the Great Plains and, uh, massacres continued to plague Native tribes.
Assimilating Native youth seemed to be the only way to save Native people. At first, churches and missionaries set up schools outside reservation borders and kids would attend during the day and return home in the afternoon. Pratt came on the scene infresh from an experiment working with Native prisoners, to whom he taught English and Christianity and trades for employment.
Pratt and his supporters were certain the prisoner experiment would work for Native children. What could go wrong? Pratt convinced the families of about 80 children from the Pine Ridge and Rosebud reservations in South Dakota to let him educate their kids 1, miles away in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.
The long distance, he argued, would break the hold tribal life had on students. Tribal languages and practices were not allowed. Inmandatory education for Native children became federal policy.
If parents refused to send their children away, Bureau of Indian Affairs authorities could withhold treaty-obligated annuities or rations food, clothing, land and jail offenders. Hundreds of Indian boarding schools, both on-site and off-reservation, were built and utilized through the early part of the twentieth century.
Tens of thousands of Native children were forced through the system. By the s, however, the boarding school trend lost favor, primarily because of how expensive it was annual appropriations reached into the millions and how few Native students chose to assimilate into white society upon graduating.
The feds turned over many school administrations to religious organizations.
Today, many boarding schools continue to operate specifically to education Native children, but under tribal authority and oversight and with positive, education-based missions that incorporate Indigenous teachings and perspectives.
Fear and Punishment as Educational Tools Though I find it problematic at best, many consider the foundations and intentions of Indian boarding schools to have been beneficial and successful — if the aim was to save a dying race, then the 5.
It is my belief, however, that government and church-run boarding schools have had the single greatest negative impact on Natives, beyond wars or reservations or anything else the US threw our way.
Not only did the forced removal of Native children result in the destruction of the tight familial structures and cultural values many tribes relied on, it also brought tribes to their knees politically and ended Native-led resistance efforts.
Interviews and accounts from school administrators in a document known as the Kennedy Report show how they believed brutal punishments for transgressions like speaking Native languages were necessary to literally break children from tribal values.
One clergyman told him to get in line with the girls if he wanted his hair kept long. Staff gave him a pink rosary, instead of the blue reserved for boys. Though shamed, he still refused to have his hair cut.Sati or suttee is an obsolete funeral custom where a widow immolates herself on her husband's pyre or takes her own life in another fashion shortly after her husband's death..
Mention of the practice can be dated back to the 3rd century BCE, while evidence of practice by widows of kings only appears beginning between the 5th and 9th centuries CE.
The practice is considered to have originated. Outside India, Asian-Indian Hindu immigrants have a lower level of advance directives. Culture and religion were not perceived to be barriers by a majority of survey participants.
Culture and religion were not perceived to be barriers by a majority of survey participants. Dec 04, · The Great Basin culture area, an expansive bowl formed by the Rocky Mountains to the east, the Sierra Nevadas to the west, the Columbia Plateau to .
The History and Culture of the Indian People, 2nd ed. – Maloney, Clarence. Peoples of South Asia, Mandelbaum, David I was looking for the history of clothing in India, but I ended up with the history of India. Emily. Oct 30, @ pm. Can you put Traditions on . South Africans of Indian origin comprise a heterogeneous community distinguished by different origins, languages, and religious beliefs.
The first Indians arrived during the . How was the Indian culture ended Many years ago, in America, there lived only Indians. Then the Americans came in and slowly, with peace contracts, pushed them in the reservations where they were allowed to do anything they wish including culture like the ghost dance.