Another occasion the mind often takes of comparing, is the very being of things, when, considering anything as existing at any determined time and place, we compare it with itself existing at another time, and thereon form the ideas of identity and diversity. When we see anything to be in any place in any instant of time, we are sure be it what it will that it is that very thing, and not another which at that same time exists in another place, how like and undistinguishable soever it may be in all other respects: For we never finding, nor conceiving it possible, that two things of the same kind should exist in the same place at the same time, we rightly conclude, that, whatever exists anywhere at any time, excludes all of the same kind, and is there itself alone.
If we will attentively consider new born children, we shall have little reason to think that they bring many ideas into the world with them and that "by degrees afterward, ideas come into their minds.
Locke allowed that some ideas are in the mind from an early age, but argued that such ideas are furnished by the senses starting in the womb: If we have a universal understanding of a concept like sweetness, it is not because this is an innate idea, but because we are all exposed to sweet tastes at an early age.
He took the time to argue against a number of propositions that rationalists offer as universally accepted truth, for instance the principle of identitypointing out that at the very least children and idiots are often unaware of these propositions. Furthermore, Book II is also a systematic argument for the existence of an intelligent being: Locke connects words to the ideas they signify, claiming that man is unique in being able to frame sounds into distinct words and to signify ideas by those words, and then that these words are built into language.
Chapter ten in this book focuses on "Abuse of Words. He also criticizes the use of words which are not linked to clear ideas, and to those who change the criteria or meaning underlying a term. Thus he uses a discussion of language to demonstrate sloppy thinking. Locke followed the Port-Royal Logique  in numbering among the abuses of language those that he calls "affected obscurity" in chapter Locke complains that such obscurity is caused by, for example, philosophers who, to confuse their readers, invoke old terms and give them unexpected meanings or who construct new terms without clearly defining their intent.
Writers may also invent such obfuscation to make themselves appear more educated or their ideas more complicated and nuanced or erudite than they actually are. Book IV[ edit ] This book focuses on knowledge in general — that it can be thought of as the sum of ideas and perceptions.
Locke discusses the limit of human knowledge, and whether knowledge can be said to be accurate or truthful Thus there is a distinction between what an individual might claim to "know", as part of a system of knowledge, and whether or not that claimed knowledge is actual.
For example, Locke writes at the beginning of Chap. IV Of the Reality of Knowledge: Knowledge, say you, is only the Perception of the Agreement or Disagreement of our own Ideas: John Wynne published An Abridgment of Mr. Editions[ edit ] Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Edited by Alexander Campbell Fraser.to the understanding. 3. Identity of modes and relations. All other things being but modes or relations ultimately terminated in substances, the identity and diversity of each particular existence of them too will be by the same way determined: only as to things whose existence is in succession, such as are the actions of nite beings, v.
g. But it being a contradiction that two or more should be one, identity and diversity are relations and ways of comparing well founded, and of use to the understanding. Identity of modes and relations. Chapter xxvii: Identity and diversity. 1. Another context in which the mind compares things [= ‘considers things together’] is their very being: when we consider something as existing at a given time and place and compare it with itself existing at another time, we are led to form the ideas of identity and diversity.
A summary of Book II, chapters xxiv-xxvi: Ideas of Relation in John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
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John Locke: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding: Book 2: Chapter Book II - Chapter XXVII Of Identity and Diversity. 1. Wherein identity consists. Another occasion the mind often takes of comparing, is the very being of things, when, considering anything as existing at any determined time and place, we compare it with itself existing at another .
Chapter III: Other considerations concerning Innate Principles, 1. Principles not innate, unless their ideas be innate. In the reception of simple ideas, the understanding is for the Chapter II: Of Simple Ideas.
1. Uncompounded appearances. Chapter XXVII: Of Identity and Diversity. 1. Wherein identity consists. 2. Identity of.