Definitions[ edit ] Non-relativistic classical mechanics treats time as a universal quantity of measurement which is uniform throughout space and which is separate from space.
Entropy-the measure of uncertainty in a system. In the case of a two-headed coin, there can be neither any freedom of choice nor any reduction in uncertainty so long as the destination knows exactly what the outcome must be.
In other words, the value of a specific bit of information depends on the probability that it will occur. In general, the informative value of an item in a message decreases in exact proportion to the likelihood of its occurrence. Redundancy-the degree to which information is not unique in the system.
Perfect redundancy is equal to total repetition and is found in pure form only in machines. In human beings, the very act of repetition changes, in some minute way, the meaning or the message and the larger social significance of the event. Zero redundancy creates sheer unpredictability, for there is no way of knowing what items in a sequence will come next.
As a rule, no message can reach maximum efficiency unless it contains a balance between the unexpected and the predictable, between what the receiver must have underscored to acquire understanding and what can be deleted as extraneous. Noise-the measure of information not related to the message.
In electrical apparatus noise comes only from within the system, whereas in human activity it may occur quite apart from the act of transmission and reception. Interference may result, for example, from background noise in the immediate surroundings, from noisy channels a crackling microphonefrom the organization and semantic aspects of the message syntactical and semantical noiseor from psychological interference with encoding and decoding.
Noise need not be considered a detriment unless it produces a significant interference with the reception of the message. Even when the disturbance is substantial, the strength of the signal or the rate of redundancy may be increased to restore efficiency.
Channel Capacity-the measure of the maximum amount of information a channel can carry. Suppose you wanted to know where a given checker was located on a checkerboard.
If you start by asking if it is located in the first black square at the extreme left of the second row from the top and find the answer to be no, sixty-three possibilities remain-a high level of uncertainty. On the other hand, if you first ask whether it falls on any square at the top half of the board, the alternative will be reduced by half regardless of the answer.
By following the first strategy it could be necessary to ask up to sixty-three questions inefficient indeed!
Provided an influential yet counter-intuitive definition of communication. From Littlejohn, Stephen W.
Theories of Human Communication. Wadsworth,p Information is a measure of uncertainty, or entropy, in a situation. The greater the uncertainty, the more the information. As used by the information theorist, the concept does not refer to a message, facts, or meaning.Set of mathematical disciplines (such as Boolean algebra, predicate calculus, and prepositional calculus) employed in reducing the rules of formal logic to the rules of algebra.
Its major objective is to eliminate ambiguities caused by the use of natural languages. Symbolic logic has its origins in the works of two German mathematicians, . In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
Spacetime diagrams can be used to visualize relativistic effects such as why different observers perceive where and when events occur.. Until the turn of the 20th century, the assumption had been that the three-dimensional geometry of.
Terms definition, a word or group of words designating something, especially in a particular field, as atom in physics, quietism in theology, adze in carpentry, or district leader in politics.
See more. Definition. Like most other SI base units, the candela has an operational definition—it is defined by a description of a physical process that will produce one candela of luminous intensity. Since the 16th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) in , the candela has been defined as.
The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given . A conceptual model of communication. (Reprinted with permission from Westley and MacLean, Jr., ) (a) Objects of orientation (X 1 X) in the sensory field of the receiver (B) are transmitted directly to him in abstracted form (XZ X 3) after a process of selection from among all Xs, such selection being based at least in part on the needs and problems of B.
Sep 01, · *One of the features of mathematical thinking that often causes beginners immense difficulty is the logical precision required in mathematical writing, frequently leading to sentence constructions that read awkwardly compared to everyday text and take considerable effort to parse.