See Article History Alternative Titles: It is the fifth largest country in the world, exceeded in size only by RussiaCanadaChinaand the United Statesthough its area is greater than that of the 48 conterminous U. Brazil faces the Atlantic Ocean along 4, miles 7, km of coastline and shares more than 9, miles 15, km of inland borders with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador—specifically, Uruguay to the south; ArgentinaParaguayand Bolivia to the southwest; Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and VenezuelaGuyanaSurinameand French Guiana to the north.
De Silva and John M. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa suffers by far the greatest malaria burden worldwide and is currently undergoing a profound demographic change, with a growing proportion of its population moving to urban areas.
Urbanisation is generally expected to reduce malaria transmission; however the disease still persists in African cities, in some cases at higher levels than in nearby rural areas. This paper aims to collate and analyse risk factors for urban malaria transmission throughout sub-Saharan Africa and to discuss their implications for control.
A systematic search on malaria and urbanisation was carried out focusing on sub-Saharan Africa. Particular interest was taken in vector breeding sites in urban and periurban areas.
A variety of urban vector breeding sites were catalogued, the majority Urbanization of the highlands which were artificial, including urban agriculture, tyre tracks, and ditches.
Natural breeding sites varied according to location. Low socioeconomic status was a significant risk factor for malaria, Urbanization of the highlands present in peri-urban areas. A worrying trend was seen in the adaptation of malaria vector species to the urban environment.
Urban malaria is highly focused and control programs should reflect this. As urbanisation continues and vector species adapt, continued monitoring and control of urban malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is essential. Background Despite recent declines in Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission, largely due to increased distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets LLINs and a switch to artemisinin-based combination therapy ACT drugs, sub-Saharan Africa still suffers greatly from the disease.
In West Africa, the population growth rate for urban areas is estimated at 6. As Africa becomes increasingly urbanized, factors contributing to urban malaria will become more relevant.
The general consensus is that urbanization will lead to decreased malaria transmission. One recent modelling study predicts a Malaria vector species are known to prefer clean water for breeding, which is difficult to come by in polluted urban areas, and the higher ratio of humans to mosquitoes is also thought to lead to a decreased human biting rate [ 5 ].
However, despite these encouraging factors, malaria transmission persists in African cities and, in some cases, at even higher levels than in surrounding areas [ 6 ]. Indeed, there are African cities experiencing entomological inoculation rates EIRs greater than 80 infective bites per person per year [ 7 ].
A variety of factors may contribute to this, including socioeconomic status, urban agricultural practices and poorly-monitored land use [ 8 ]. Uncontrolled urban expansion can lead to increased malaria transmission as town planners are unable to keep up with sprawling city boundaries and rural practices, which are conducive to vector breeding sites and incorporated into the urban fringes.
Furthermore, areas of low socioeconomic status, often at the periphery of cities, are at particular risk. Here, poor-quality housing, unpaved roads, and reduced access to healthcare provide little protection against the disease [ 9 ].
A number of systematic reviews have investigated the impact of urbanization on malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa [ 10 — 12 ], dividing transmission into urban, periurban, and rural settings. Annual EIRs compiled across dozens of African cities show a strong tendency for transmission to increase in a gradient from urban to periurban to rural areas—in the most recent meta-analysis, the average EIRs were However, urban malaria transmission varies according to a number of additional factors such as location e.
This paper aims to identify the important factors in urban malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, to better understand their interactions, and to discuss their relevance to policy makers in an increasingly urbanized continent. Literature Search A systematic search on the impact of urbanisation on malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa was carried out in April by the first named author on the following electronic databases: The search was performed as follows: Papers referring to Africa were therefore chosen manually.
Inclusion Criteria The above key words yielded a total of 1, published articles. The authors agreed that the articles included from the search should meet the following criteria: The first named author scanned all articles by title, eliminating those that did not concern sub-Saharan Africa, leaving abstracts to be read.
A further abstracts were rejected that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Full texts of the remaining articles were read, unless in a foreign language, in which case the abstracts were read again and studies were excluded if they did not meet the inclusion criteria upon further reading.
Where relevance to the inclusion criteria was questioned, the second named author independently evaluated the article and consensus was quickly reached.
Finally, English-language articles and nine foreign-language abstracts were identified as relevant to the topic. The literature selection process is summarized in Figure 1. Flow chart of study selection process.Relief. Scotland is traditionally divided into three topographic areas: the Highlands in the north, the Midland Valley (Central Lowlands), and the Southern Uplands.
(The latter two areas are included in the Lowlands cultural region.) Low-lying areas extend through the Midland Valley and along the greater part of the eastern seaboard. Voices of Democracy 5 (): 57‐71 Kimokeo‐Goes What are food supply and distribution systems to cities?
Food 1 supply and distribution systems (FSDSs) to cities are complex combinations of activities, functions and relations (production, handling, storage, transport, process 2, package, wholesale, retail 3, etc.) enabling cities to meet their food nationwidesecretarial.com activities are performed by different economic agents (players.
This statistic shows the degree of urbanization in Thailand from to Urbanization means the share of urban population in the total population of a country.
In , percent of.
Area: This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).
Webs of Power offers a fresh perspective on women in Southeast Asia. Focusing on one rural Minangkabau village, the book provides vital insights into the gendered processes of post-coloniality.
The Minangkabau living in West Sumatra are the largest matrilineal group in the world.